IN THE INTEREST OF VOTES FOR WOMEN
THE KNOXVILLE EQUAL SUFFRAGE LEAGUE.
Edited by Emma Farrand Tyler.
One of the bitter objections made by
a southern representative in congress
against the passage of the federal
amendment was—woman's ignorance.
"Heaven knows there are enough
ignorant voters now, without bringing
to the electorate a lot of ignorant women," is the war cry of Mr, Bailey, who
has made himself notorious as a man
whose vision is very limited.
It is true that there are too many
ignorant voters; there are many igno-
rant women who may be made voters.
But have we not noticed that as soon as
(and before) a new duty arrives for
woman those who have kept pace with
its progress are ready to assist those
who are ignorant of its full exercise?
The recent victory in New York has
brought forth eulogies from many leading journals on the splendid and masterly organization of women, who conducted the campaign, eliciting the surprise and admiration of well known leaders in political life. And this is equally true of much other work that has
been taken up by women in the winning
The Woman Citizen had no sooner
announced the New York victory than
A Study Outline Appeared, one portion
of which, by Henrietta W. Livermore,
The four topics (1) Citizens, (2) Voters,
(3) Necessary Steps, (4) Elections will
be expanded into a series of articles to
be published in later issues of the
Each topic lends itself to further ex-
pansion so as to take in an exposition
of our different governmental forms (1)
Citizens and Naturalization being derived from the national government
leads to a study of the national government. (2) Voters, being subject to state
qualifications, to a study of the state
government, (3) Counties could be considered with the "necessary steps," and
(4) Elections, being held in local districts, could lead to a study of local town
or city government. This plan will
be followed in the Woman Citizen.
Specific and definite duties might be
the outgrowth of these, studies. Committees to carry on such work could be
formed such as (1) Americanization Com-
mittee, (2) Committee to follow State
Legislation, (3) Committee to follow the
local council and local court, (4) Committee to organize and educate the woman voters.
From such a study and such schools
as have been outlined, a group of women, trained to go out and teach others
should b- one concrete result. Thus an
education in voting essentials could be
carried to civic centers, to community
meetings in school houses, to existing
societies, to groups of women of differ-
ent spheres, localities, customs and
languages, to the end that What Every
Woman Voter Should Know may be
carried to Every Woman Voter.
1. Who Are Citizens?
U. S. Constitution Fourteenth Amendment.
"All persons born or naturalized in
the United States, and subject to the
jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the
United States and of the state wherein
This means men, women and children.
2. Rights of Citizens.
U. S. Constitution Fourteenth Amendment.
"No state shall make or enforce any
law which shall abridge the privileges
or immunities of citizens of the United
States; nor shall any state deprive any
person of life, liberty or property without due process of law; nor deny to any
person within its jurisdiction the equal
protection of the laws.
Basis of representation shall be reduced if right to vote is denied male
citizens. Fourteenth Amendment, Section 2.
Right of citizens to vote shall not be
denied on account of race or color. Fifteenth Amendment. (See Morse, p. 64,
ABC Government, for Rights of Federal Citizens and Rights of State Citizens.)
By Federal Statute, not State.
U. C. Constitution, Article 1, Section
8, part 4.
"The congress shall have power to
establish an uniform rule of naturalization."
Qualifications for naturalization of
men and unmarried alien women, the
Five years' residence, not less than 2
nor more than 7 years' wait between
taking out first and second papers.
Understand the principles of our government.
Take oath of allegiance,
Be of good character.
4. Citizens by marriage.
A married woman's citizenship follows that of her husband.
If husband is alien, wife is alien,
whether American born or not.
If husband is American, wife is American citizen whether American born or
naturalized or not.
If husband is naturalized, wife is
American citizen whether American
born or naturalized or not. (For this citizenship of widows see Boyd, M. S. In
Woman Citizen, January 5, 1918.)
"Any woman who is now, or may
hereafter be married to a citizen of the
United States, and who might herself
be lawfully naturalized may be deemed
a citizen." (U. S, Revised Statues. Section 1994.)
In New York state, when a woman is
a "citizen by marriage" she must have
lived in the United States 5 years as a
state qualification for voting.
Citizens by marriage need education
In American ideals, government, lan-
guage and customs. This work is a
specific duty of women voters as well
as a war measure. (See "Watch your
Vote." Americanization Com. of N. Y.
S. W. S. Party, 303 Fifth Avenue, New
It would be interesting to know how
much the average male voter knows
about the condition, and whether he
considers that knowledge of much importance as a member of the voting
Intelligent women are awake to their
own needs and to those of their less intelligent sisters, whom they are already
assisting, in assuming this great responsibility. We feel that it is solemn
trust about to be given us. E. F. T.
Historically this amendment was pre
ceded by Article XIV, Section 2, which
attempted indirectly to give the franchise to male negroes in respect to federal officials and legislators by providing that representation in congress
should be reduced in the same proportions as the number of male citizens
twenty-one years and over, denied the
franchise by a state bears to the whole
number of male citizens of voting age
in that state.
The conferring of civil rights is another matter, for on the one hand many
civil rights are conferred by the state,
and on the other, both federal and
state governments confer many civil
rights on citizen and resident alien alike.
It is because of these three classes of
civil rights that the civic books are so
unsatisfactory in their definitions of the
world citizen. "Citizens," says one premier, "are all the people, men, women
and children, who live in one place."
"Citizens" says the ordinary person, going to the other extreme and including
all possible citizens' rights, "are voters." "Citizens," we may say, leaving
out the political or "active" group and
limiting ourselves to "passive" rights,
"are those who have full civil rights in
the United States and in the state
wherein they reside."
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